Oozing brackets


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It was the weak sunlight filtering through the almost-leafless overhead branches that drew my eyes to these fungi, their droplets of oozing liquid glinting as the light fell on them.

211126 alder brackets (1)

These are Alder brackets, Inonotus radiatus, a common species which, as you might expect from the name, is most often found on dead and dying Alder trees, though it does also grow on other species of hardwood trees.

211126 alder brackets (2)

According to the First Nature website, ‘Inonotus, the genus name of the Alder Bracket fungus, comes from ino– a prefix meaning fibrous, and ot which means an ear; the ending –us merely turns it into the form of a Latinised noun. The specific name radiatus comes from the Latin radi– meaning a ray, spoke or plate, and it is probably a reference to the radial wrinkles that are often evident on the upper surfaces of mature Alder Brackets.’

211126 alder brackets (3)

As you can see from my last photograph, these particular brackets were also home to several tiny larvae, perhaps of fungus gnats, though I can’t be sure of that.

211126 alder brackets (4)

A Barkfly


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Looking for leafmines has had all sorts of spin-off benefits this year, as I’ve learned to recognise more tree species and encountered creatures I’ve never seen before. This little creature is a prime example: it has been confirmed as the Barkfly species Valenzuela flavidus.

211124 Valenzuela flavidus Barkfly (1)

Perhaps due to their tiny size (this one’s c.3mm), Barkflies are much under-recorded – I’d never even heard of them – but, as the Barkfly Recording Scheme website notes ‘The lack of recording ensures that even casual recorders of the group have a good chance of making significant finds. Wherever you live you are likely to turn up species previously unrecorded in the area and may even find species new to Britain.’ Seven new species of Barkfly have been discovered in just the past 10 years. So, that’s another insect group to keep a look out for.

211124 Valenzuela flavidus Barkfly (2)

Leafmines: Bucculatrix thoracella


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I found these mines on Lime leaves a few weeks ago but they will still be visible on the yellowing leaves, just not occupied any more. The tiny white tick shape is distinctive, making it easy to identify these as the mines of the little brown and yellow moth Bucculatrix thoracella.

After the ‘tick’ has been formed, the moth larvae graze beneath the leaves, creating small bare areas known as feeding windows. When they moult, the larvae retreat to cocoons – one of the leafmining experts calls them ‘cocoonets’ (shown below), but their final cocoons can be found either in the leaf litter below the tree or on the Lime’s trunk. I’ve yet to find one of those.



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During Friday’s search for more leafmines, I ventured along roads I hadn’t walked before, and I’m so glad I did as I found a new plant – well, an abundance of new plants really, growing all along the roadside verge in front of Cardiff’s main Royal Mail delivery centre. This is Gallant-soldier (Galinsoga parviflora).

211121 gallant soldier (1)

I’ve read several variations of its history in Britain: here’s what is written in Flora Britannica:

Gallant-soldier … was brought to Kew Gardens from Peru in 1793, bearing a name that commemorated the Spanish botanist Don Mariano Martinez de Galinsoga. The plant itself was rather less imperious, being a thin, lax and greenish-flowered daisy with weedy habits. In the early 1860s it escaped from Kew and became widely established in gutters, gardens and waste places around Richmond … Galinsoga was corrupted to ‘Gallant soldier’.

211121 gallant soldier (2)

Since their escape from Kew, these soldiers have marched far and wide, though they haven’t yet reached all parts of the British Isles, and there are not a lot of Welsh records. You can see a map of their whereabouts on the NBN Atlas website.

Clubs and stagshorns


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The one in which we look at yellow stick-like fungi, poking up out of the ground, or wood.

Club fungi can be difficult to identify positively so I can’t be completely sure of my names here, though I have had some help from an expert. So, this first fungus, found in local deciduous woodland, is probably Handsome club (Clavulinopsis laeticolor).

211119 yellow club

This next club fungus looks superficially similar to the last but this one had sprouted in mossy grassland, meaning it is likely Yellow club (Clavulinopsis helvola).

211119 small stagshorn

And this third yellow stick-like fungus is paler, almost translucent and jelly-like, and was flourishing on decaying wood. I’m fairly sure this is Small stagshorn (Calocera cornea).

A bonus butterfly


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During yesterday’s meandering walk around north Cardiff, surveying for one particular leaf-mining moth, I almost stepped in front of an oncoming car, such was my delight at seeing this butterfly flutter up from the pavement in front of me and head across the road. Fortunately, it was a quiet no-exit road, the car driver was going very slowly, and kindly waved me across in front of him. Fortunately, too, the butterfly, this glorious Red admiral, had settled on the roadside hedge opposite so I was able to enjoy watching it enjoy the autumn sunshine.

211118 red admiral



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The rat population at Cosmeston Lakes Country Park is thriving thanks to the generosity of those folk who leave seed for the birds. The rodents are fearless opportunists and extremely cheeky, approaching to grab their share of the bounty even before people have stepped away, but they do at least share the seed with the birds. The rats stuff their mouths full of seed and scuttle away, whereas the squirrels monopolise the seed, staying put and not allowing the birds to approach.

211117 rats